Nissim Ezekie

The Patriot

I am standing for peace and non-violence.
Why world is fighting fighting
Why all people of world
Are not following Mahatma Gandhi,
I am simply not understanding.

Nissim EzekielNissim Ezekiel (16 December 1924 – 9 January 2004) was born in Bombay in an Indian jewish family. His father, Moses Ezekiel, was a professor of botany at Wilson College, and his mother was principal of her own school. He was a Jewish poet, actor, playwright, editor and art-critic. Nissim Ezekiel was a foundational figure in postcolonial India’s literary history, specifically for Indian writing in English.

In 1947, Ezekiel earned a BA in Literature from Wilson College, Mumbai, University of Mumbai. In 1947-48, he taught English literature and published literary articles. After dabbling in radical politics for a while, he sailed to England in November 1948. He studied philosophy at Birkbeck College.

Ezekiel is universally recognized and appreciated as being one of the most notable and accomplished Indian English language poets of the 20th century, applauded for his subtle, restrained and well crafted diction, dealing with common and mundane themes in a manner that manifests both cognitive profundity, as well as an unsentimental, realistic sensibility, that has been influential on the course of succeeding Indian English poetry.

Ezekiel’s first book, The Bad Day, appeared in 1952. He published another volume of poems, The Deadly Man in 1960. After working as an advertising copywriter and general manager of a picture frame company (1954–59), he co-founded the literary monthly Jumpo, in 1961. He became art critic of The Names of India (1964–66) and edited Poetry India (1966–67). From 1961 to 1972, he headed the English department of Mithibai College, Bombay. The Exact Name, his fifth book of poetry was published in 1965. During this period he held short-term tenure as visiting professor at University of Leeds (1964) and University of Pondicherry (1967). In 1967, while in America, he experimented with LSD. In 1969, Writers Workshop, Kozhikode published his The Damn Plays. A year later, he presented an art series of ten programmes for Indian television. In 1976, he translated Jawarharlal Nehru poetry from Marathi, in collaboration with Vrinda Nabar, and co-edited a fiction and poetry anthology. His poem The Night Of The Scorpion is used as study material in Indian and Columbian schools. Ezekiel also penned poems in ‘Indian English’ like the one based on instruction boards in his favourite Irani café. His poems are used in NCERT English textbooks.

He was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1983 for his Poetry collection, “Latter-Day Psalms”, by the Sahitya Akademi, India’s National Academy of Letters.
Source : http://www.gurugram.org/nissim-ezekiel/

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Nissim Ezekie

Savitribai Jyotirao Phule

Savitribai Phule
Savitribai Phule
Savitribai Jyotirao Phule (3 January 1831 – 10 March 1897) was the first female teacher of the first women’s school in India. She was an Indian social reformer and marathi poet. Along with her husband, Jyotirao Phule, she played an important role in improving women’s rights in India during British rule.

She was married to Jotiba Phule at the young age of nine. Though, she was formerly uneducated, she was encouraged and motivated by Mahatma Jotiba Phule to study. Later on she became the first lady teacher of India in the school started by her husband. Life of Savitribai Phule as a teacher in the school at the time when upper caste orthodox people used to look down wasn’t easy and many a times they used to pelt stones and throw dung on her.
Jotirao and Savitribai Phule were among the first in modern India to present a major anti-caste ideology and evolve a brand of socio-cultural activism based on uniting the oppressed whom they classified as stree, shudra and ati-shudra. It should be a matter of great interest to feminists and historians that even in the 19th century, here was a couple from a backward class background who understood that it was as important to address the subjugation of women as the oppression of shudras and ati-shudras. In their understanding of the oppressed, the Phules included other marginalised groups such as adivasis and Muslims too.

The couple founded the first women’s school at Bhide Wada in Pune in 1848. Savitribai was the first female teacher of the first women’s school in India and also considered as the pioneer of modern Marathi poetry. In 1852 she opened a school for Untouchable girls.

Savitribai Jyotirao Phule

P C Roy (Father of Indian Chemistry)

A man may desire victory always but he should welcome defeat at the hands of his own disciples

Acharya-Prafulla P.C Roy (2 August 1861 – 16 June 1944) was born in a village in Khulna (now in Bangladesh), is one of the famous scientists that India has ever produced. Considered as one of the components of the Bengal Renaissance, P. C. Roy was an eminent scientist, an exemplary entrepreneur, a patriot and a passionate teacher.
The founder of onetime famous Bengal Chemicals, Ray was rightly called the ‘Father of Indian Chemistry’ and among his path-breaking works was ‘The History of Hindu Chemistry’. A man of firm conviction and visionary zeal, Ray truly symbolized the best synthesis of Indian tradition, philosophy and a modern scientific outlook. Someone cherishing the spirit of extreme self-denial, like that of Mahatma Gandhi, Ray did leave a lasting impression on the Father of the Nation himself.
A more remarkable career than that of P.C. Ray could not well be chronicled”, wrote Nature, the famous international scientific journal, while commenting on the first volume of Ray’s autobiography.Prafulla Chandra Ray was the founder of the Indian School of modern chemistry. He was a pioneer of chemical industries in India. Ray’s activities were not confined to his laboratory and teaching. His activities concerned with all spheres of human interest—educational reform, industrial development, employment generation & poverty alleviation, economic freedom and political advancement of the country. He was a pioneer in social reform in the country. He took to social service with a missionary zeal. He was a great critique of the prevailing caste system in the Hindu society.

In his Presidential address to the Indian National Social Conference in 1917 he made a passionate appeal for removal of the caste system from the Hindu society. Ray was an ardent advocate of the use of the mother tongue as medium of instruction in schools and colleges. In recognition of his contribution towards the advancement and enrichment of Bengali language, he was elected the General President of the Bangiya Sahitya Parishad (1931-34). Ray symbolized the best of Indian tradition and philosophy.

Ray’s early education was in his village school, founded by his father. However, he made very little progress in this school as he used to be frequently absent from the school. In 1870 his father permanently shifted to Kolkata (then Calcutta) mainly for proper education of his children..In 1879 he passed the Entrance Examination and took admission into the Metropolitan Institution (later Vidyasagar College) which was established by Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. At that time the Metropolitan Institution had no science classes or laboratories and Ray attended lectures on Physics and Chemistry in the Presidency College as an external student. Here he was specially attracted by the chemistry courses of professor Alexander Pedler. While studying for his BA examination, he applied for and was awarded in 1882 one of the two Gilchrist Prize Scholarships after an all-India competitive examination. Without completing the course for his degree, Prafulla Chandra proceeded to Britain and enrolled in the BSc programme of Edinburgh University where he studied Physics, Chemistry and Biology amongst other subjects. But Ray did not confine his studies to only natural sciences. He also developed a strong interest in history and read books like Rousselet’s ‘L’Inde des Rajas’, Lanoye’s ‘L’Inde contemporaine’, ‘Revenue dex deux moneds’. He also read Fawcett’s book on political economy and ‘Essays on Indian Finance’. After obtaining his BSc degree from Edinburgh University, Ray embarked on his doctoral thesis (DSc) in the same university and completed his doctorate in 1887. He was awarded the Hope Prize which allowed him to work on his research for a further period of one year after completion of his doctorate. His thesis title was “Conjugated Sulphates of the Copper-magnesium Group: A Study of Isomorphous Mixtures and Molecular Combinations”. While a student he was elected Vice-President of Edinburgh University Chemical Society in 1888.

In 1889 Prafulla Chandra was appointed as Assistant Professor of Chemistry in the Presidency College at Calcutta. He soon earned a great reputation as a successful and inspiring teacher. He would recite poems of Rabindranath Tagore and quote slokas from ‘Rasa Ratnakara’, a book written by the ancient Indian Chemist Nagarjuna. He was very affectionate towards his students. He was overjoyed when they received awards of honors. He used to repeat the Sanskrit saying, ‘A man may desire victory always but he should welcome defeat at the hands of his own disciples’. Famous Indian scientists like Meghnad Saha and Shanthi Swarup Bhatnagar were among his students.

Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prafulla_Chandra_Ray
Src : http://www.gurugram.org/p-c-roy-father-of-indian-chemistry/

P C Roy (Father of Indian Chemistry)

Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath-TagoreRabindranath Tagore (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941) was born in the city of Kolkata (formerly known as Calcutta), at No. 6 Dwarkanath Tagore Lane, Jorasanko Thakur Bari. Rabindranath Tagore is best known as a poet but he was a man of many talents. On the one hand, he was the first Indian to win a Nobel for literature (1913) and on the other, a novelist who wrote and composed an entire genre of songs. He was a philosopher and educationist who established a university that challenged conventional education.

He was educated at home; and although at seventeen he was sent to England for formal schooling, he did not finish his studies there. In his mature years, in addition to his many-sided literary activities, he managed the family estates, a project which brought him into close touch with common humanity and increased his interest in social reforms. He also started an experimental school at Shantiniketan where he tried his Upanishadic ideals of education.

In 1901, Tagore left Sheildah. He came to Shantiniketan (West Bengal) to build an ashram. He built a prayer hall, a school, and a library. He planted many trees and built a beautiful garden. There, Tagore’s wife and two of his children died. His father also died on January 19 1905. By this time, he had started receiving monthly income as part of his inheritance. He also started receiving some royalties for his literary works. He had a large following among readers of the Bengali language, as well as other people who knew his works through translations and reviews.

Tagore (who perhaps should be referred to as “Rabindranath”) became famous in the West when he traveled to England and met W. B. Yeats and others, and translated his works into English. He was knighted in 1915-but, after the massacre in India in 1919 of demonstrators, gave up his knighthood. Although he did not agree with all the political activities and nationalistic principles of the movements for independence, he did participate in them along with Gandhi.
Source : http://www.gurugram.org/rabindranath-tagore/

Rabindranath Tagore

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

Books are the means by which we build bridges between cultures.

Dr Sarvepalli RadhakrishnanDr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (5 September 1888 – 17 April 1975) was born in the pilgrim town of Tirutani, Was scholar and statesman who was the first Vice President of India (1952–1962) and the second President of India from 1962 to 1967.
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan had his early education at Gowdie School, Tiruvallur and then went to the Lutheran Mission School in Tirupati for his high school. He joined the Voorhee’s College in Vellore and later switched to the Madras Christian College. He chose Philosophy as his major subject and did his B.A. and M.A. in it.

After completing his M.A., Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, accepted an Assistant Lectureship at the Madras Presidency College in 1909. In college, he mastered the classics of Hindu philosophy, namely the Upanishads, Bhagvad Gita, Brahmasutra, and commentaries of Sankara, Ramunuja and Madhava. He also acquainted himself with Buddhist and Jain philosophy and philosophies of Western thinkers such as Plato, Plotinus, Kant, Bradley, and Bergson.

Radhakrishnan wrote a thesis on the ethics of the Vedanta titled “The Ethics of the Vedanta and Its Metaphysical Presuppositions”, which was a reply to the charge that the Vedanta system had no room for ethics. Professor A.G. Hogg awarded the following testimonial for this thesis:
“The thesis which he prepared in the second year of his study for this degree shows a remarkable understanding of the main aspects of the philosophical problems, a capacity for handling easily a complex argument besides more than the average mastery of good English”.

The thesis indicates the general trend of Radhakrishnan’s thoughts… In his own words, “Religious feeling must establish itself as a rational way of living. If ever the spirit is to be at home in this world, and not merely a prisoner or a fugitive, spiritual foundations must be laid deep and preserved worthily. Religion must express itself in reasonable thought, fruitful action and right social institutions.”

In 1918, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was selected as Professor of Philosophy by the University of Mysore. In 1921, Radhakrishnan was nominated as Professor of Philosophy at the Calcutta University, 1921. This eminent teacher was appointed as the Vice Chancellor of ‘Benaras Hindu Unviersity’ in 1939, when the nation was still under British rule. The British Governor of the region back then, Sir Maurice Hallet, wanted to turn the University campus into a war hospital, which was the latter’s way of responding to the ‘Quit India Movement’ started by Mahatma Gandhi. Dr. Radhakrishnan strongly opposed this politically motivated thought of Hallet, as a result of which financial support to the university was stalled. Dr. Radhakrishnan personally approached philanthropists and thinkers across the country to raise funds, in a bid to keep the university functioning.
He was also appointed as ambassador to UNESCO in 1946 and went on further to be appointed as ambassador to the Soviet Union in 1949 during which he established a strong relationship with them
Source : http://www.gurugram.org/dr-sarvepalli-radhakrishnan/

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

C. V. Raman : A Great Physics Teacher

The whole edifice of modern physics is built up on the fundamental hypothesis of the atomic or molecular constitution of matter.

cv raman
cv raman
C. V. Raman, A Professor of Physics at Calcutta University was the first `non-white’, Asian and Indian to receive the Nobel prize (1930) in physics for his work on scattering of light and discovery of the Raman effect, with simple equipment barely worth RS. 300.
Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born at Tiruchirapalli in Tamil Nadu on 7th November 1888 to a physics teacher. Raman was a very sharp student. After doing his matriculation at 12, he was supposed to go abroad for higher studies, but after medical examination, a British surgeon suggested against it. Raman instead attended Presidency College, Madras. After completing his graduation in 1904, and M.Sc. in Physics in 1907, Raman put through various significant researches in the field of physics. He studied the diffraction of light and his thesis on the subject was published in 1906.

Raman received the Nobel prize `for his work on diffusion of light and for the effect named after him’. The objections raised by some historians that Raman did not share the Nobel prize with others or that the Committee ignored Raman’s collaborators as well as Russian colleagues is not correct; as he was awarded the Prize not only for the Raman effect, but for other work in this field as well. The Nobel Committee had to take the decision according to certain rules and regulations imposed on it by the Nobel Foundation. Raman was nominated 10 times and the nominators wrote convincing recommendations in favour of him; thus the Committee decided for Raman. He received the Nobel prize in record time due the practical significance of the discovery, as well as the good opinion of the famous contemporary scientists about his work.

Source : http://www.gurugram.org/c-v-raman-a-great-physics-teacher/

C. V. Raman : A Great Physics Teacher